Music Chronology

A Chronology of Music Events

with some non-musical events thrown in for good measure…

c.4000BC In Egypt, the harp and vertical flute were among the most popular instruments,which were probably played mostly by the upper classes.
c.3000BC Egyptians knew of the concept of fourths, fifths, octaves and unisons.Sumerian writers mention ecclesiastical music
c.1580BC Instruments from western Asia introduced into Egypt, includingtrumpets, oboes, lyres and drums.Profession musicians now come from the lower classes.Women now also play instruments.
c.1500BC An Egyptian wall painting shows conductors beating time by snapping fingers and pounding.
c.800BC The period of written music begins with the oldest surviving example of musicalnotation – a Sumerian hymn concerning the creation of man.
c.776BC The first recorded date of the Olympiad (no fanfares survive:).
c.675BC The first known musical figure, Terpander, a Kithara playerfrom Lesbos, started a musical revolution in Greece. Terpander changed theGreek lyre from 4 to 7 strings, filled in all the “missing” notes in theoctave and created the Mixolydian scale. Terpander was also supposed to

have been appointed by Sparta to pacify the city with his music during

a period of social turmoil.

c.685BC The creation of the trombone by Tyrtaeus.
c.606BC Rome passed a law to prevent the playing of any instrument other thanthe preferred instrument, the pipes.
c.606BC After reforms of Servien (which presumably allowed the otherinstruments again), the tuba and cornu players of Rome became an officialsection of the lists of Roman citizens.
c.586BC Music became a part of the Pythian games in Greece and werewon by the piper Sakadas.
c.550BC The diatonic scale originated in Greece.
Vibrations were discovered to be the basis of sound by Lasos of Hermione,a teacher of Pindar.
c.427BC Plato recommended that the state be based on thefoundation of music, attributing great ethical value to it in his Republic.He felt that any changes in the traditional ways of music might lead to thedownfall of the State.
c.250BC The hydraulis, an organ with a keyboard and pipes runby water pressure, was invented by Ktesibios.
c.170BC Greek musicians had problems catching the Romans’interest except when playing at sports events (possibly the start of thehalf-time show).
c.141BC Emperor Wu of China created the Imperial Office ofMusic to establish and preserve correct musical pitch.
43 (AD) Britain conquered and brought into the Roman Empireby the Emperor Claudius.
58 Three court orchestras were established in the ChineseHan Dynasty in addition to a large military band. The orchestras were toplay for religious ceremonies, for the archery of the palace, and forbanquets and the harem.
c.200 The organ became a part of Catholic churches in Europe.
c.300 Euclid tried to find mathematical ratios of different notes.At this time, a Schola Cantorum was founded in Rome with the purpose ofimproving singing.
c.350 Monks and Bishops brought antiphonal psalmody into the church.It soon spread to the secular clergy.
c.354 Christmas was first observed in Rome.
c.400 A dualistic interpretation of the incarnation of Christleads to a distinction between “Lord” and “Christ.”The barritus, the barbarian war song, described as a soft hum that builtto a great crescendo until at last it thundered like waves breaking on rocks.
432 Pope Sixtus established a monastery for daily practice of psalmody
c.500 Monasteries were the only remaining centers of culturein Western Europe
576 A Nestorian Synod forbade the use of tambourines and castanetsduring funerals.
590-604 Pope Gregory I (the Great) collected and codified the bestchants being used in the church and called the Gregorian Chant. He discovered thatthe second half of the scale, H to P, was a repetition of the first half, A to H,and abolished the last 8 letters. He then used the first 7 again, indicating the

lower ocatve by capitals and the upper octave by lower case letters.

c.600 According to the Venerable Bede (673-735), the harpwas played in Britain and it was customary to hand it from one player toanother at entertainments.
c.700 Tempo and intensity was denoted in Romania with the useof alphabetic letters.
c.720 Beowulf was composed in northern England.
781 English monk Alcuin (ca. 732–804) meets Charlemagne;Alcuin encouraged study of liberal arts, influencing the CarolingianRenaissance. Alcuin was largely responsible for the revision of theChurch Liturgy during the reign of Charlemagne.
800 Charlemagne (742–814) crowned Holy Roman Emperor.
850 Hucbald wrote the earliest manuscript giving rules for writing organum.
853 First printed book in China
c.900 A single horizontal line served as a guide for the position ofthe Neumae, which were written on, above or below the line. In southern Europe, theNeumae were being spaced. They were placed in the modern way at different heightscorresponding to their pitches.
c.900 The bow, the bridge and the fingerboard of the monochord wereapplied to the “Fidicula” or “Crwth,” a forerunner of the violin.
c.900 The Wofenbuttel manuscript was a collection of folk songscontaining many of the old German secular songs.
c.910 Hucbaldus was the first to write a group of parts togetherin what could be considered a score. Hucbaldus invented a staff consisting of anindefinate number of lines. The syllables that he intended to be sung werewritten between the lines.
c.1000 Gryffull ab Aynam, king of North Wales, reformed the orderof Welsh bards, separating the professions of bard and minstrel.
c.1000 Two-, three- and four-lines staves were being used forGregorian Chants.
c.1010 Guido d’Arezzo used 6 syllables Ut, Re, Mi, Fa, So and La,suggested by syllables of the hymn “Ut queant laxis.”
1025 Guido invented accidentals as a result of diving the scalesinto Hexachords.
c.1030 Parallel fourths become considered more pleasant to theear than parallel fifths.
c.1045 Moveable type printing invented in China
1061 In the Hungarian anti-Christian Rebellion of 1061, paganshamans used old songs to arouse the people to murder the bishops and priestsof the new, official religion.
1066 The Norman Conquest of England. 1066 William of Normandyconquered England.
c.1090 In Southern France, the new verse writingaristocrat/ musician Troubadours travelled from court to court, spreading theirpoems and songs of courtly love and knightly ideology. Their songs and poemswere also spread by the jongleurs, the itinerant professionals of the time.

The Troubadours left 2600 poems and 275 melodies.

c.1095 Chanson de Roland, the oldest and most important songof deeds was composed.
c.1095 First crusade was proclaimed by Pope Urban II. Manysongs of Troubadours and Trouveres dealt with the Crusades. William, Dukeof Guienne, one of the earliest Troubadours, joined the first Crusade.
c.1100 First universities in Europe; Salerno (medicine),Bologna (law), Paris (theology and philosophy)
c.1100 The songs of the troubadours received strong impetusas a result of the new desire for intellectual pursuits. The earliest knownwritten music for guitars (popular in Europe at this time) was written bythe Troubadours, who flourished until c.1300.
c.1100 Bagpipes become known (and probably abhored by many:)in England.
c.1100 Popular music is performed almost exclusively by nomadic musicians.
c.1100 The French Rondeau in its oldest form was a song sungwhile performing a round dance. Hence, its name.
c.1150 The Dies irae was written by Thomas of Celanoand sung in the Requiem Mass.
c.1182-1226 The lauda (Italian hymns of praise) originated.
1199 King Richard the Lion-hearted of England, a leading trouvere, died.
c.1200 Trumpets used in battles as a signal to attack.
c.1200 Dance music and motets were the most popular forms of music.
c.1200 Wandering musicians settled down in communities andlater acquired official recognition as town pipers who performed at variousmunicipal ceremonies. They formed corporations for their mutual protectionin England, France and Germany to prevent being classed with wandering vagabonds.
1203 The parson of Ossemer was killed by a stroke of lightningas he was fiddling for his parishioners to dance on the Wednesday of Whitsun-week.
1215 Magna Carta (England).
c.1225 Note values with associated length values begin withthe longa, the stemmed square, derived from the breve, the stemless square.
c.1225 The earliest known song in harmony was the song”Sumer is icumen in”, written by John of Fornsete, a monk of Reading Abbey.
c.1225 Guilds and fraternities came into existence.
c.1226 A vocal composition, scored by an English Ecclesiastic(probably John of Fornsete) used notes exactly like those now in use in Englishchurches and readable by modern musicians.
1240 Spectacles invented in Italy.
c.1250 The sharp or diesis came into use. Also the diamond-shapedsemi-breve and equivalent rest were introduced.
1252 King Alphonso of Castile and Leon assembled theCantigas de Santa Maria,writing down over 400 melodies.
1252 Gold currencies introduced in Florence and Genoa.
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1257 Chinese silk became available in Europe.
ca.1263-1269 Marco Polo (ca. 1254–1324) accompanies father,Nicolo Polo, and uncle, Maffeo Polo, to Court of Kublai Khan. The threereturned to China, 1271–1295.
ca.1270 Anonymous IV, De mensuris et discantu.
1291-1515 expansion of the Swiss Confederation.
1297-1309 Swiss Confederation recognized by the enemies of the Hapsburgs.
1314 Gervais du Bus, Roman de Fauvel (satirical poem of over3000 verses, attacking Church & State); enlarged in 1316 by Chaillou dePestain, with additional poetry and music.
ca.1316-ca.1400 Ars nova [musical period].
ca.1320 Philippe de Vitry, Ars nova.
c.1320 Cultural revival in Italy; Dante (1265-1361),Giotto (1276-1337), Petrarch (1304-71)
1327-1377 Edward III (England).
1334-1336 Giovanni Boccaccio (1313–1375), Caccia di Diana(“Diana’s Hunt”), first Italian hunting poem in terza rima.
1337–1453 Hundred Years’ War, a series of wars between Franceand England. In the end, England was expelled from all of France, exceptCalais. (Begins with war between Philip VI of Valois and Edward III.)
1340 Battle of Sluys (French navy defeated).
1341 Francesco Petrarca (1304–1374) crowned with Laurel, Rome.
c.1341 Black Death starts in Asia
1346 Battle of Crécy.
1347 English capture Calais.
1347–1361 the Black Death (resulting in possibly 24 million ormore deaths—about 25%–50% of Europe’s population). [See Robert S. Gottfried,The Black Death: Natural and Human Disaster in Medieval Europe (New YorkThe Free Press, 1983).]
1348 University of Prague founded.
ca.1350 Machaut, the Missa de Nostre Dame.
ca.1350-ca.1450 European population continued to decline in numbers.
ca.1351-1353 Boccaccio, Decameron.
1356 Battle of Poitiers.
1360 lull in Hundred Years’ War after Treaty of Brétigny
1363-1404 Philip the Bold (Burgundy).
1364-1380 Charles V (France).
ca.1370 Sir Gawain and the Green Knight.
1373–1394 (and after) Geoffrey Chaucer (ca. 1343–1400), Canterbury Tales,written initially as unrelated fragments, later assembled together.
1377–1399 Richard II (England).
1377 Death of Guillaume de Machaut (1300-1377), who sought torecover the world of the Troubadours in monophonic and polyphonic song bycombining the trouvere forms with the polyphonic techniques developedduring the Gothic period.
1380 Wyclif, first English translation of the Bible.
1391–1399 First Ottoman Siege of Constantinople.
1397 Turkish Invasion of Greece.
1399–1413 Henry IV (England).
1400 Death of Chaucer, first great English poet
1415 Battle of Agincourt: Henry V of England resumes attack on France
ca.1415 Tres Riches Heures, completed by the Limbourg brothers forthe Duc de Berry.
1419 Alliance between Burgundy and England.
1419–1467 Philip the Good (Burgundy).
1420 English occupy Paris.
1420–1436 Filippo Brunelleschi (1377–1446) completes dome of FlorenceCathedral.
1422–1461 Charles VII (France).
1428 Joan of Arc: beginning of French revival
1431 Jeanne d’Arc executed.
1432 Jan van Eyck (Burgundian–Flemish painter, 1386–1440), theGhent Altar-piece.
1435 Alfonso V of Aragon (king 1416–1458) captures Naples.
1436 French recapture Paris.
1440 Platonic Academy, Florence established.
ca.1445 Johannes Gutenberg (ca. 1400–1467/8) invented printingwith movable metallic type, prints first book in Europe.
ca.1445-1521 Josquin des Prez, Flemish composer
ca.1445-1527 Heinrich Finck, German composer
ca.1450-1517 Heinrich Isaac, Flemish composer
c.1456-1506 Alexander Agricola, French composer.
1447–1455 Pope Nicholas V established Vatican Library.
1450 Battle of Formigny.
c.1450 The popularity of the French basse danse and theItalian bassadanza created a new style of ensemble improvisation, andthe instrumental dance band was established, replacing the predominantlysolo performance of dance music of the 13th and 14th centuries.
1453 England loses Continental possessions (except Calais)
1453 Battle of Castillon—English driven from France; Turkscapture Constantinople.
ca.1455 Gutenberg, first printed Bible
1455–1487 Wars of the Roses (England).
ca.1460-1522 Jean Mouton , French composer
ca.1460-1518 Nicholas Gombert, Flemish composer
1467–1477 Charles the Bold (Burgundy).
1470 Printing presses set up at the Sorbonne, Paris, and at Utrecht.
1471–1528 Albrecht Durer.
ca.1473-1476 Johannes Tinctoris, Proportionale musices.
1473 Printing press set up at Buda, Hungary.
1474 Printing press set up at the Valencia, Spain.
1474 Death of Du Fay; Josquin des Prez and Compère in serviceof Duke of Milan.
1477 Death in Battle of Nancy of Charles the Bold, last Duke ofBurgundy. Maria (of Burgundy) marries Maximilian (later Maximilian I), sonof Frederick III (Emperor of Austria). Burgundy becomes part of Austrian Empire.
1477 First book printed in England, William Caxton’s Dicets andSayings of the Philosophers.
ca.1477 Sandro Botticelli (Alessandro di Mariano dei Filipepi)(1444–1510), Primavera.
ca.1477-1576 Titian (painter).
1477 Johannes Tinctoris, Liber de arte contrapuncti.
1478 Ferdinand and Isabella, with authorization of Pope SixtusIV, establish Inquisition.
1479 Marriage of Ferdinand V of Aragon and Isabella of Castile.
1480-1547 Jean Richafort, French composer
ca.1485-1560 Clement Janequin, French composer
1485 Battle of Bosworth, death of Richard III, ends Wars of theRoses, Henry Tudor crowned King of England (Henry VII).
1485-ca.1493 Heinrich Isaac in service of Medici in Florence.
ca.1485 Johannes Tinctoris, De inventione et usu musicae.
ca.1485 Botticelli, The Birth of Venus.
1486 Josquin des Prez in papal choir.
1487 Bartholomew Diaz sails around the southern tip of Africa(then called the Cape of Storms; renamed Cape of Good Hope by John II of Portugal.
1490-1562 Adrian Willaert, Italian composer
1490–1502 Eton Choirbook compiled.
ca.1490-1562 Claudin de Sermisy, French composer
ca.1490-1545 Phillipe Verdelot, Italian composer
1491–1492 Siege of Granada, Moorish troops finally expelledfrom Spain. 200,000 Jews expelled from Granada.
1492 Christopher Columbus (1451–1506) arrives in new world(Bahamas). Second journey to Caribbean, 1493.
ca.1492-1555 Ludwig Senfl, German composer
1493 Maximilian I becomes Austrian Emperor.
1494 Ludovico Sforza becomes Duke of Milan.
1494 Albrecht Dürer travels to Italy; then returns to Nuremberg.
1494-1545 John Taverner, English composer
1495 Expulsion of Jews from Portugal.
1495–1498 Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) paints his LastSupper in the refectory of Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan.
ca.1495-1545 Constanza Festa, Italian composer
1496 Franchino Gafori, Practica musicae.
1497 Heinrich Isaac becomes court composer to Maximilian I.
1497–1498 Vasco da Gamba finds sea route to India.
1497–1553 Hans Holbein the younger.
1498–1450 Columbus’ third voyage—to Trinidad and coast of South America.
1499 Swiss independence recognized by the Empire (Peace ofBasle). French expell Ludovico Sforza from Milan. Amerigo Vespucci andAlonso Hojeda sail to the mouth of the Amazon River.
c.1500 Italian Renaissance: Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1520),Botticelli (1444-1510), Machiavelli (1468-1527)
1500 Peter Henlein invented the pocket watch (Nuremburg).
ca.1500-ca.1561 Luis de Milan, Italian composer
ca.1500-1573 Christopher Tye, English composer
1501 Ottaviano Petrucci (1466–1539), in Venice, publishesfirst printed book of music, Harmonice musices Odhecaton A; followed bytwo more books of secular works, Canti B (1502) and Canti C (1503).
1501–1502 Amerigo Vespucci sails along coast of South America.
1501–1504 Michelangelo sculpts the statue David.
ca.1502 Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) paints Mona Lisa.
1502–1504 Columbus’ fourth (and last) voyage—to Honduras and Panama.
1504 Josquin des Prez appointed at Notre Dame, Condé-sur-l’Escaut.Obrecht appointed maestro di cappella at Ferrara.
ca.1504-ca.1567 Jacques Arcadelt, Italian composer
ca.1505-1585 Thomas Tallis, English composer
1505 Obrecht dies of plague.
1506 Brumel appointed maestro di cappella at Ferrara.
1506 Pope Julius II commissioned St. Peter’s, Rome—architects& artists included Bramante (1444–1514), Raphael, Peruzzi, and Michelangelo (1575–1564).
1507 Escobar appointed maestro di cappella of Seville Cathedral.
1507 Margaret of Austria appointed Regent of the Netherlands.
1508 Raphael enters service of Pope Julius II.
1508–1512 Michelangelo paints the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel.
1509 Henry VIII becomes King of England.
ca.1510-1557 Jacobus non Papa Clemente, Flemish composer
ca.1510-1586 Andrea Gabrieli, Italian composer
ca.1510-1564 Pierre de Manchicourt , French composer
1511 Sebastian Virdung, Musica getutscht.
1512 Dürer become court painter to Maximilian I.
1513 Portugese reach Canton (China).
1515 Charles V (1500–1556) becomes Duke of Burgundy.
1515 Adrian Willaert in Italy, in service of Cardinal Ippolito d’Este.
1515 Battle of Marignano; François I defeats Swiss and Venetiansand enters Milan.
1516-1565 Cipriano de Rore, Italian composer
1516 Charles V (1500–1556) becomes Emperor of Austria and Spain(greatest empire in the world). Thomas More (1478–1535), Utopia.
1517 Martin Luther (1483–1546) posts the 95 theses, castle church,Wittenberg.
ca.1517 Constanzo Festa enters Papal Choir.
1519 Charles V, ruler of Spain and Netherlands, elected emperor
1521 Martin Luther outlawed: beginning of Protestant Reformation
1523 Pietro Aron, Thoscanello de la musica (later editions asToscanello in musica).
1525 Attaingnant’s earliest surviving book (Paris).
1525–1594 Palestrina.
c.1525 Introduction of potato from South America to Europe
1526 Hans Holbein (1497–1543) arrives in England (from Basel).
1527 Willaert becomes maestro di cappella at S. Marco, Venice.
1528-1596 Thomas Wythorne, English composer
ca.1528-1600 Claude Le Jeune, French composer
1529 Turkish seige of Vienna.
1530 Madrigali novi, Rome—first publication to use the term madrigal.
1532 Martin Agricola, Musica instrumentalis Deudsch.
1532 Pizarro begins conquest of Inca Empire for Spain
1532–1594 Orlando di Lasso.
1532-1594 Roland de Lassus (Orlando Lasso), French composer
1533-1604 Claudio Merulo, Italian composer
1533 Pierre Attaingnant, Vingt et Sept Chansons Musicales aQuatre Partes…; Verdelot, Madrigali.
1534 Ignatius Loyola (1491–1556) founds the Societas Jesu.Jaques Cartier explores the Gulf of the St. Lawrence River.
1534 Henry VIII of England breaks with Rome
1534–1539 Henry VIII dissolves the monasteries, sellstheir lands to the gentry—the largest shift in ownership of propertyin modern history.
1535 Cristóbal de Morales joins the Papal Choir.
1535–1536 Jaques Cartier returns to North America, sailsup the St. Lawrence River as far as present-day Quebec and Montreal.
1535–1541 Michelangelo paints the Last Judgement in the Sistine Chapel.
ca.1535-1582 Giorgio Mainerio, Italian composer
1536 Luis de Milán (ca. 1500–ca. 1562), El Maestro, Valencia.
1536 Sir Thomas More executed. John Calvin (1509–1564),Institutio Religionis Christianae.
1538-1574 Robert White, English composer
fl.1540-1550 Vincenzo Fontana, Italian composer
ca.1540-1580 Florentio Maschera, Italian composer
1541 John Calvin founds reformed church at Geneva
1542 Geneva Psalter published (1st edition).
1542–1543 Silvestro di Ganassi, Regola Rubertina.
1542–1543 Portugese become first Europeans to visit Japan.
1543 Susato establishes printing press in Antwerp.
1543 Thomas Tallis joins the Chapel Royal.
1543 Nicholas Copernicus (1473–1543) publishes On theRevolutions of the Celestial Orbs.
1543 Copernicus publishes Of the Revolution of Celestial Bodies
1543-1623 William Byrd, English composer
1544–1595 Torquato Tasso, poet.
1545 Cristóbal de Morales appointed maestro di cappella atToledo Cathedral (until 1547).
1545-1609 Eustache Du Caurroy, French composer
1545–1551 First Council of Trent.
1545 Council of Trent: beginning of Counter-Reformation
1546 Alonso Mudarra (1508/ca. 1520-1580), Tres libros de mvsica…
1547 Claude Gervaise, Second liure contenant trios gaillardes,trois pavanes, vingt trois branles, tant gays, simples, que doubles, douzebasses dances, & neuf tourdions, en somme cinquante… .
1547 Cipriano de Rore appointed maestro di cappella at Ferrara.
1547 Heinrich Glareanus, Dodecachordon.
1547 Michelangelo appointed architect of St. Peter’s(begun by Bramante, 1506).
1549 Francis Xavier establishes a Jesuit mission in Japan.English Book of Common Prayer.
1550-1605 Orazi Vecchi , Italian composer
1550 Giorgio Vasari (1511–1574), Le vite de’ piueccellenti architetti, pittori e scultori italiani (Lives of theMost Eminent Painters and Sculptors; revised 1568).
1551 Palestrina appointed maestro di cappela of Cappella Giulia.
1553–1558 Mary Tudor Queen of England.
1553-1599 Luca Marenzio, Italian composer
1554 Mary Tudor marries Philip of Spain.
1554 first Masses by Palestrina published.
1555 Peace of Augsburg.
1555 Juan Bermudo, Declaración de instrumentos musicales… .
1555 Palestrina appointed maestro di cappela ofSt. Johan Lateran, Rome; also becomes member of the Sistine Chapel.
1556-1622 Giovanni Gastoldi, Italian composer
1556 Lassus receives position at Chapel of Duke Albrecht V, Munich.
1556 Herman Finck, Practica musica.
1557-1603 Thomas Morley, English composer
1558 Gioseffo Zarlino, Le istitutioni harmoniche.
1558–1603 Elizabeth I Queen of England.
1559 Tobacco first introduced into Europe
1559 Sarum rite abolished.
1560-1630 William Brade, German composer
1560-1628 Peter Phillips, English composer
1560-1613 Carlo Gesualdo, Italian composer
1561 Palestrina appointed maestro di cappela of S. Maria Maggiore, Rome.
1562 Council of Trent begins discussions of Music.
1562–1598 Huguenot Wars.
1562-98 Wars of religion in France
1562-1621 Jan Sweelinck, Flemish composer
1562/3-1628 John Bull, English composer
1563-1626 John Dowland, English composer
1563-1640 Giles Farnaby, English composer
1563 formal establishment of the Church of England.
1563 William Byrd organist and Master of Choristers at Lincoln Cathedral.
1563 Cipriano de Rore appointed maestro di cappela of St. Mark’s, Venice.
1564-1612 Hans Leo Hassler, German composer
1565 Philip II (Emperor of Austria and Spain 1556–1598)orders intensification of the Inquisition in the Netherlands.
1565 Zarlino appointed maestro di cappela of St. Mark’s,Venice (on death of C. de Rore).
1565 Giaches de Wert appointed maestro di cappela of S. Barbara(Ducal Chapel), Mantua.
1566 Andrea Gabrieli appointed organist at St. Mark’s, Venice.
1567 military dictatorship established in the Netherlands, underthe Spanish Duke of Alba; multiple executions of rebels.
1567-1620 Thomas Campion, English composer
1567-1643 Claudio Monteverdi, Italian composer
1568-1634 Adriano Banchieri, Italian composer
1568–1648 Dutch Wars of Independence.
1569-1645 Tobias Hume, English composer
c.1570-1626 John Coprario (Cooper), English composer
1570 William Byrd joins the Chapel Royal.
1571 London Stock Exchange established.
1571-1621 Michael Praetorius, German composer
1571-1656 Thomas Tompkins, English composer
1571-1683 John Ward, English composer
1574-1638 John Wilbye, English composer
1575-1623 Thomas Weelkes (Wilkes), English composer
1575 Thomas Tallis and William Byrd, Cantiones…Sacrae… .
1575 Giovanni Gabrieli employed at court of Duke Albrecht V, Munich.
1576 Martin Frobisher in Frobisher Bay, Canada.
1577–1580 Francis Drake sails around the world.
ca.1577-1614 John Maynard, English composer
1578-1628 Alfonso Ferrabasco II, English composer
fl.1579-1594 John Johnson, English composer
ca.1579-1639 Melchior Franck, German composer
1579 Union of Utrecht—establishment of Dutch Republic.
1580 Portugal & Spain united under Philip II of Spain.
1580 Luca Marenzio, first book of madrigals.
1580-1630 Richard Dering (Deering), English composer
1580-1648 Michael East, English composer
1581 Dutch Proclamation of Independence. Torquado Tasso,Gerusalemme liberata.
1581 Vincenzo Galilei, Dialogo…della musica antica e della moderna.
1582 Gregory XIII’s reform of the calendar—accepted byPapal States, Spain, Portugal, France, Spanish Netherlands, Denmark, Norway.
1582 First publication of music by Monteverdi.
1582-1630 Thomas Simpson, English composer
1583-1643 Giralamo Frescobaldi , Italian composer
1583-1625 Orlando Gibbons, English composer
fl 1584-1602 Anthony Holborne, English composer
1584 Sir Walter Raleigh (1552–1618) established firstEnglish colony in Virginia.
1584 Palestrina, Motettorum liber Quartus.
ca.1585 William Shakespeare (1564–1616) begins careeras actor and playwright.
1588 Spanish Armada.
1588 Spanish Armada defeated by English
1588 Nicholas Yonge, Musica transalpina.
1589 performance of the intermedi of La Pellegrina, Florence.
1590 Monteverdi employed at court of Duke Vincenzo I, Mantua.
1590 Spenser, The Faerie Queene, books I–III.; Sir Philip Sidney, Arcadia.
1591 Thomas Morley appointed organist of St. Paul’s Cathedral, London.
fl.1591-1601 John Farmer, English composer
1592 Thomas Morley appointed member of the Chapel Royal, London.
1593 & 1609 Girolamo Diruta, Il Transilvano.
1594 Gregorian Calendar accepted in Catholic German States,and Switzerland.
1594 Hercole Bottrigari, Il Desiderio overo de’ Concerti divarij strumenti musicali.
1594 William Shakespeare joins the Lord Chamberlain’s company [of actors].
1595 Luca Marenzio, Il Settimo libro de madrigali a cinqve voci, Venice.
1597 John Dowland, The First Booke of Songes or Ayres…, London .
1597 Thomas Morley, A Plaine and Easie Introduction to Practicall Musicke.
1597 Giovanni Gabrieli, Sacrae symphoniae, Venice.
1598 Edict of Nantes—Huguenots given freedom of worship and equal rights.
1598 Peri, Dafne performed in Florence.
1598 Ben Jonson, Every Man in his Humour performed in London.
1599 Lord Chamberlain’s company builds the Globe Theatre.
1600 East India Company established. Rubens appointed atcourt of Duke Vincenzo I, Mantua.
1600 Peri, Euridice performed in Florence.
1600–1601 Shakespeare, Hamlet.
1601 Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643) appointed maestro dicappela, Mantua.
1601 Luzzasco Luzzaschi, Madrigali…, Roma.
1601 Monteverdi appointed maestro di cappela, Mantua.
1602 Giulio Caccini, Le nuove musiche, Florence [dated 1601].
1602 Giulio Caccini, Le nuove musiche.
1603 Samuel de Champlain (ca. 1567-1635) begins explorationof the Gulf of St. Lawrence and St. Lawrence River.
1604 John Dowland, Lachrimæ, London.
1605 Miguel de Cervantes Saavendra, El Ingenioso HidalgoDon Quixote de la Mancha published.
1605–1607 William Byrd, Gradualia.
1607 Jamestown, Virginia established—first permanent Englishcolony in North America.
1607 Monteverdi’s La Favola d’Orfeo establishes opera as anart form, performed in Mantua
1608 Francesco Rasi, Vaghezze di musica, Venice.
1608 The Dutchman, Johann Lippershey (ca. 1570-1619) inventsthe telescope.
1609 Dutch traders first visit Japan.
1609 Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) discovers moons of Jupiter.
1609 Johannes Kepler (1571-1630), Astronomia Nova.
1609 English Baptist Church established in Amsterdam.
1609 Rubens appointed court painter to Archduke Albert andArchduchess Isabella, Antwerp.
1610 Monteverdi, Vespero della Beata Vergine, Venice; Gio.Paolo Cima, Concerti ecclesiastici, Milan.
1610 Robert Dowland (compiler), A Musicall Banqvet, London;Robert Dowland (compiler), Varietie of Lvte-Lessons, London.
1611 The Authorized Version of the Bible published [the King James Bible].
1612 Orlando Gibbons, The First Set of Madrigals and Mottetsof 5. Parts…, London.
1613 Carlo Gesualdo, …Sei libri de’madrigali a cinqve voci…, Genoa.
1613 Monteverdi appointed maestro di cappela, St. Mark’s, Venice
1615 Michael Praetorius, Syntagma musicum, Vol. I (Vol. II1618, Vol. III 1619).
1615 Sigismondo d’India, Le musiche a due voci, Venice;(Le musiche…Libro terzo, Venice, 1618; …Libro quarto, Venice, 1621;…Libro quinto, Venice, 1623).
1616 Inigo Jones (1573-1652), builds Queen’s House,Greenwich—introduction of Italian style of Palladian architecture.
1616 Death of William Shakespeare (born 1564)
1618–1648 Thirty-Years War; began with revolt in Bohemia.
1619 First black slaves arrive in Virginia.
1620 Francis Bacon (1561-1626), Novum Organum, andThe New Atlantis, 1627, prepares foundations for rational scientific experimentation.
1620 Pilgrims land at Cape Cod, Massachusetts.
1622 Biagio Marini, Scherzi, e canzonette a vna, e due voci…, Parma.
1623 Claudio Monteverdi, Lamento d’Ariana…et con duelettere amorose in genere rapresentativo. Venice.
1625 French establish trading settlements in theCaribbean—export sugar and tobacco.
1628 William Harvey (1578-1657) discovers circulation of the blood.
1630 Dutch establish trading settlements in Brazil—export sugar and silver.
1630 Girolamo Frescobaldi, Primo libro d’arie mvsicali& Secondo libro d’arie mvsicali, Florence.
1630 Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, invades HolyRoman Empire to protect protestant states.
1630 more than 1000 Puritans settle in Massachusetts.
1631 Catholic army under General Tilly sacks Magdelburg.
1632 Galileo, Dialogues Concerning Two World Systems,presents evidence for heliocentric solar system.
1632 Oughtred (1575-1660) invents slide rule.
1633 Inquisition forces Galileo to retract his views.
1636 Marin Mersenne, Harmonie universelle.
1637 René Descartes (1596-1650), Le Discours de la Méthode,establishes modern scientific method; Descartes also invented coordinate geometry.
1638 Galileo, Two New Sciences.
1639 France enters Thirty-Years War.
1641 Giovanni Batista Fontana, Sonate a 1 2. 3. per il Violino,o Cornetto, Fagotto, Chitarone, Violoncino o simile altro Istromento, Venice.
1642-1646 English Civil War.
1642 Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-1669), “The Night Watch”.
1643 Evangelista Torricelli (1608-1647) invents barometer.
1644 Barbara Strozzi, Il primo de’ madrigali…, Venice.
1647-1659 French-Spanish war.
1648-1653 French civil war.
1648 Peace of Westphalia ends Thirty-Years War.
1649 Charles I executed.
1649-60 English Republic under Oliver Cromwell banned elaboratechurch music, thereby stimulating secular music composition.
1651 John Playford publishes The English Dancing Master, thefirst book to give the melody and dance instructions for English Country Dancing,which had been around since at least the mid-sixteenth century. Country dances,enjoyed by all levels of society, were danced by groups of four or more, whereas

dances such as the Almain, Bouree, and Courante were intended for couples.

Sources:

The Times Atlas of World History, Revised Edition,

edited by Geoffrey Barraclough,

copyright 1978, 1979, 1984, 1985

by Times Books Limited, 16 Golden Square, London W1.

The World Chronology of Music, v.1

ML 161

E4 Music

Gordon J. Callon

Director

School of Music

Acadia University

Notes to Cds:

Chanterai – Music of Medieval France,

Sonus, Dorian CD DIS-80123, Copyright 1993 Sonus.


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